Learn more about the emergence of antibiotics resistance using these online resources:

The antibiotics we are using

CIPROFLOXACIN - A broad-spectrum antibiotic, inhibits DNA gyrase and type II topoisomerase necessary to separate bacterial DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division (the concentrations we use are 0.1, 0.4, and 1.6 ug/ml).

KANAMYCIN - This is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Binding interferes with protein translation (the concentrations we use are 6, 12, and 24 ug/ml)

CHLORAMPHENICOL - A bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits growth of bacteria. Bind to the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome to inhibit protein synthesis (the concentrations we use are 3, 9, and 27 ug/ml)

COMBINATION THERAPY - A mix of all three antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol). The drug cocktail has multiple targets inside the cell.

Wikipedia has excellent entries on antibiotics, drug resistance, long-term evolution experiments. As well as each of the antibiotics we use (ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol)

Youtube lectures

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